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Continuous Analytical Measurement - Conductivity Measurement

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Continuous Analytical Measurement - Conductivity Measurement
Dissociation and Ionization in Aqueous Solutions
Two-Electrode Conductivity Probes
Four-Electrode Conductivity Probes
Electrodeless Conductivity Probes
Electrical conductivity in metals is the result of free electrons drifting within a “lattice” of atomic nuclei comprising the metal object. When a voltage is applied across two points of a metal object, these free electrons immediately drift toward the positive pole (anode) and away from the negative pole (cathode).

Electrical conductivity in liquids is another matter entirely. Here, the charge carriers are ions: electrically imbalanced atoms or molecules that are free to drift because they are not “locked” into a lattice structure as is the case with solid substances. The degree of electrical conductivity of any liquid is therefore dependent on the ion density of the solution (how many ions freely exist per unit volume of liquid). When a voltage is applied across two points of a liquid solution, negative ions will drift toward the positive pole (anode) and positive ions will drift toward the negative pole (cathode). In honor of this directional drifting, negative ions are sometimes called anions (attracted to the anode), while positive ions are sometimes called cations (attracted to the cathode).

Electrical conductivity in gases is much the same: ions are the charge carriers. However, with gases at room temperature, ionic activity is virtually nonexistent. A gas must be superheated into a plasma state before substantial ions exist which can support an electric current.

 



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