Tuesday, January 23, 2018

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Fluid Mechanics - Buoyancy

When a solid body is immersed in a fluid, it displaces an equal volume of that fluid. This displacement of fluid generates an upward force on the object called the buoyant force. The magnitude of this force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the solid body, and it is always directed exactly opposite the line of gravitational attraction. This is known as Archimedes’ Principle. Buoyant force is what makes ships float. A ship sinks into the water just enough so the weight of the water displaced is equal to the total weight of the ship and all it holds (cargo, crew, food, fuel, etc.):



If we could somehow measure the weight of that water displaced, we would find it exactly equals the dry weight of the ship:


Archimedes’ Principle also explains why hot-air balloons and helium aircraft float. By filling a large enclosure with a gas that is less dense than the surrounding air, that enclosure experiences an upward (buoyant) force equal to the difference between the weight of the air displaced and the weight of the gas enclosed. If this buoyant force equals the weight of the craft and all it holds (cargo, crew, food, fuel, etc.), it will exhibit an apparent weight of zero, which means it will float. If the buoyant force exceeds the weight of the craft, the resultant force will cause an upward acceleration according to Newton’s Second Law of motion (F = ma).

Submarines also make use of Archimedes’ Principle, adjusting their buoyancy by adjusting the amount of water held by ballast tanks on the hull. Positive buoyancy is achieved by “blowing” water out of the ballast tanks with high-pressure compressed air, so the submarine weighs less (but still occupies the same hull volume and therefore displaces the same amount of water). Negative buoyancy is achieved by “flooding” the ballast tanks so the submarine weighs more. Neutral buoyancy is when the buoyant force exactly equals the weight of the submarine and the remaining water stored in the ballast tanks, so the submarine is able to “hover” in the water with no vertical acceleration or deceleration.

An interesting application of Archimedes’ Principle is the quantitative determination of an object’s density by submersion in a liquid. For instance, copper is 8.96 times as dense as water, with a mass of 8.96 grams per cubic centimeter (8.96 g/cm3) as opposed to water at 1.00 gram per cubic centimeter (1.00 g/cm3). If we had a sample of pure, solid copper exactly 1 cubic centimeter in volume, it would have a mass of 8.96 grams. Completely submerged in pure water, this same sample of solid copper would appear to have a mass of only 7.96 grams, because it would experience a buoyant force equivalent to the mass of water it displaces (1 cubic centimeter = 1 gram of water). Thus, we see that the difference between the dry mass (mass measured in air) and the wet mass (mass measured when completely submerged in water) is the mass of the water displaced. Dividing the sample’s dry mass by this mass difference (dry wet mass) yields the ratio between the sample’s mass and the mass of an equivalent volume of water, which is the very definition of specific gravity. The same calculation yields a quantity for specific gravity if weights instead of masses are used, since weight is nothing more than mass multiplied by the acceleration of gravity (Fweight = mg), and the constant g cancels out of both numerator and denominator:


Another application of Archimedes’ Principle is the use of a hydrometer for measuring liquid density. If a narrow cylinder of precisely known volume and weight (most of the weight concentrated at one end) is immersed in liquid, that cylinder will sink to a level dependent on the liquid’s density. In other words, it will sink to a level sufficient to displace its own weight in fluid. Calibrated marks made along the cylinder’s length may then serve to register liquid density in any unit desired. A simple style of hydrometer used to measure the density of lead-acid battery electrolyte is shown in this illustration:



To use this hydrometer, you must squeeze the rubber bulb at the top and dip the open end of the tube into the liquid to be sampled. Relaxing the rubber bulb will draw a sample of liquid up into the tube where it immerses the float. When enough liquid has been drawn into the tube to suspend the float so that it neither rests on the bottom of the tapered glass tube or “tops out” near the bulb, the liquid’s density may be read at the air/liquid interface.

A denser electrolyte liquid results in the float rising to a higher level inside the hydrometer tube:


The following photograph shows a set of antique hydrometers used to measure the density of beer. The middle hydrometer bears a label showing its calibration to be in degrees Baum´e (heavy):


Liquid density measurement is useful in the alcoholic beverage industry to infer alcohol content. Since alcohol is less dense than water, a sample containing a greater concentration of alcohol (a greater proof rating) will be less dense than a “weaker” sample, all other factors being equal.

A less sophisticated version of hydrometer uses multiple balls of differing density. A common application for such a hydrometer is in measuring the concentration of “antifreeze” coolant for automobile engines. The denser the sample liquid, the more of the balls will float (and fewer will sink):


This form of instrument yields a qualitative assessment of liquid density as opposed to the quantitative measurement given by a hydrometer with calibrated marks on a single float. When used to measure the density of engine coolant, a greater number of floating balls represents a “stronger” concentration of glycol in the coolant. “Weak” glycol concentrations represent a greater percentage of water in the coolant, with a correspondingly greater freezing temperature.

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