Monday, April 23, 2018

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Routers and Routing Basics - Intermediate TCP/IP

Transport Layer Basics

• Segments data from upper layers, transported from source to destination over same data stream.

– Uses port numbers to distinguish upper-layer destination.

• Basic quality of service

• Flow control

– How fast the hosts are talking to each other.

– Congestion avoidance and control.

• Reliability

– Re-transmission of corrupted or lost data.

– Uses mechanisms such as sliding windows, sequencing numbers, acknowledgments.

• Transport Layer protocols

– TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

– UDP: User Datagram Protocol

TCP Three-Way Handshake

• Mechanism to establish a session and synchronise sending and receiving hosts

• Sequence of synchronise (SYN) and acknowledgement (ACK) segments.


TCP Windowing

• TCP uses acknowledgements to ensure packets are delivered in the same order as they were sent.

• Window size defines the number of packets to be received before an acknowledgement is sent.

Windowing in Action!

Protocol Hierarchy

Protocols and Ports

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