Process Safety and Instrumentation
In either case, the intent of this chapter is to help define and teach how to mitigate hazards encountered in certain instrumented processes. I purposely use the word “mitigate” rather than “eliminate” because the complete elimination of all risk is an impossibility. Despite our best efforts and intentions, no one can absolutely eliminate all dangers from industrial processes1. What we can do, though, is significantly reduce those risks to the point they begin to approach the low level of “background” risks we all face in daily life, and that is no small achievement.
Adamski, Robert S., Design Critical Control or Emergency Shut Down Systems for Safety AND Reliability, Revision 2, Premier Consulting Services, Irvine, CA.
ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 Part 1 (IEC 61151-1 Mod), “Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector – Part 1: Framework, Definitions, System, Hardware and Software Requirements”, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2004.
ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 Part 2 (IEC 61151-2 Mod), “Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector – Part 2: Guidelines for the Application of ANSI/ISA-84.00.01-2004 Part 1 (IEC 61151-1 Mod)”, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 2004.
Bazovsky, Igor, Reliability Theory and Practice, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1961. “Engineer’s Guide”, Pepperl+Fuchs.
“Failure Mode / Mechanism Distributions” (FMD-97), Reliability Analysis Center, Rome, NY, 1997.
Grebe, John and Goble, William, Failure Modes, Effects and Diagnostic Analysis; Project: 3051C Pressure Transmitter, Report number Ros 03/10-11 R100, exida.com L.L.C., 2003.
Hattwig, Martin, and Steen, Henrikus, Handbook of Explosion Prevention and Protection, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2004.
Hicks, Tyler G., Standard Handbook of Engineering Calculations, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1972.
“IEC 61508 Frequently Asked Questions”,
Rosemount website http://mw4rosemount.usinternet.com/solution/faq61508.html, updated December 1, 2003.
Lipt´ak, B´ela G., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process Measurement and Analysis Volume I, Fourth Edition, CRC Press, New York, NY, 2003.
Lipt´ak, B´ela G., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process Control Volume II, Third Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999.
Lipt´ak, B´ela G., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process Software and Digital Networks, Third Edition, CRC Press, New York, NY, 2002.
“Modern Instrumentation and Control for Nuclear Power Plants: A Guidebook”, Technical Reports Series No. 387, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, 2009.
Newnham, Roger and Chau, Paul, “Safety Controls and Burner Management Systems (BMS) on Direct-Fired Multiple Burner Heaters”, Born Heaters Canada Ltd.
“NFPA 70”, National Electrical Code, 2008 Edition, National Fire Protection Association.
“NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards”, DHHS (NIOSH) publication # 2005-149, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, OH, September 2005.
Perrow, Charles, Normal Accidents: living with high-risk technologies, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1999.
Rogovin, Mitchell and Frampton, George T. Jr., Three Mile Island Volume I, A Report to the Commissioners and to the Public, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Special Inquiry Group, Washington DC, 1980.
Schultz, M. A., Control of Nuclear Reactors and Power Plants, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1955.
Showers, Glenn M., “Preventive Maintenance for Burner-Management Systems”, HPAC –Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering, February 2000.
Svacina, Bob, and Larson, Brad, Understanding Hazardous Area Sensing, TURCK, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, 2001.
“The SPEC 200 Concept”, Technical Information document TI 200-100, The Foxboro Company, Foxboro, MA, 1972.
Wehrs, Dave, “Detection of Plugged Impulse Lines Using Statistical Process Monitoring Technology”, Emerson Process Management, Rosemount Inc., Chanhassen, MN, December 2006.
- Disassembly of a sliding-stem control valve
- Instrumentation Documents - Process and Instrument Diagrams
- Instrumentation Documents - SAMA Diagrams
- Conservation Laws
- Analog Electronic Instrumentation
- Service Procedure for Weekly Checks of S5-135U PLCs
- Machine Vibration Measurement - Vibration Sensors
- Machine Vibration Measurement - Monitoring Hardware
- Machine Vibration Measurement - Mechanical Vibration Switches
- Signal Characterization
- Doctor Strangeflow, or how I learned to relax and love Reynolds numbers
- Practical Calibration Standards - Temperature Standards
- Practical Calibration Standards - Pressure Standards
- The International System of Units
- Practical Calibration Standards - Flow Standards
- Fluid Mechanics - Torricelli’s Equation
- Fluid Mechanics - Flow Through a Venturi Tube
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Temperature
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Heat
- Industrial Physics Terms and Definitions
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Heat Transfer
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Specific Heat and Enthalpy
- Positive Displacement Flowmeters
- Mathematics for Industrial Instrumentation
- True Mass Flowmeters
- Process/Instrument Suitability of Flowmeters
- Machine Vibration Measurement
- Continuous Analytical Measurement - Safety Gas Analyzers
- Industrial Physics for Industrial Instrumentation
- Metric Prefixes
- Dimensional Analysis for Industrial Physics
- Classical Mechanics
- Service Procedure for Weekly Checks of S5-115U and 95U PLCs
- Programmed Maintenance of RS View32 SCADA
- Elementary Thermodynamics
- Fluid Mechanics
- Chemistry for Instrumentation
- Continuous Analytical Measurement - Conductivity Measurement
- Fluid Mechanics - Pressure
- Fluid Mechanics - Pascal's Principle and Hydrostatic Pressure
- Fluid Mechanics - Manometers
- Fluid Mechanics - Systems of Pressure Measurement
- Fluid Mechanics - Buoyancy
- Fluid Mechanics - Gas Laws
- Fluid Mechanics - Fluid Viscosity
- Fluid Mechanics - Reynolds Number
- Fluid Mechanics - Viscous Flow
- Fluid Mechanics - Bernoulli’s Equation
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Phase Changes
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Phase Diagrams and Critical Points
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Thermodynamic Degrees of Freedom
- Elementary Thermodynamics - Applications of Phase Changes
- Continuous Analytical Measurement - pH Measurement
- Continuous Analytical Measurement - Chromatography
- Continuous Analytical Measurement - Optical Analyses
- Chemistry - Terms and Definitions
- Chemistry - Atomic Theory and Chemical Symbols
- Chemistry - Periodic Table of Elements
- Chemistry - Electronic Structure
- Chemistry - Spectroscopy
- Practical Calibration Standards - Analytical Standards
- Chemistry - Formulae for Common Chemical Compounds
- Chemistry - Molecular Quantities
- Chemistry - Energy in Chemical Reactions
- Chemistry - Periodic Table of the Ions
- Chemistry - Ions in Liquid Solutions
- Chemistry - pH
- Final Control Elements - Control Valves
- Final Control Elements - Variable-Speed Motor Controls
- Principles of Feedback Control
- Basic Feedback Control Principles
- On/Off Control
- Proportional -Only Control
- Proportional-Only Offset
- Integral (Reset) Control
- Derivative (Rate) Control
- Summary of PID Control Terms
- P, I, and D Responses Graphed
- Different PID Equations
- Pneumatic PID Controllers
- Analog Electronic PID Controllers
- Digital PID Controllers
- Practical PID Controller Features
- Classified Areas and Electrical Safety Measures
- Concepts of Probability and Reliability
- High-Reliability Systems
- Process Characterization
- Before You Tune...
- Quantitative PID Tuning Procedures
- Tuning Techniques Compared
- Notes to Students with Regards to Process Dynamics and PID Controller Tuning
- Basic Process Control Strategies
- Lessons in Instrumentation TOC
- Supervisory Control
- Cascade Control
- Ratio Control
- Relation Control
- Feedforward Control
- Feedforward with Dynamic Compensation
- Limit, Selector, and Override Controls
- Safety Instrumented Functions and Systems
- Instrument System Problem-Solving