Process Dynamics and PID Controller Tuning
Different types of processes, having different dynamic (time-dependent) behaviors, require different levels of proportional, integral, and derivative control action to achieve stability and robust response. It is therefore imperative for anyone seeking to tune a PID controller to understand the dynamic nature of the process being controlled. For this reason, the chapter begins with an exploration of common process characteristics before introducing techniques useful in choosing practical P, I, and D tuning parameter values.
Lipt´ak, B´ela G., Instrument Engineers’ Handbook – Process Control Volume II, Third Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1999.
Mollenkamp, Robert A., Introduction to Automatic Process Control, Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1984.
Palm, William J., Control Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1986.
Shinskey, Francis G., Energy Conservation through Control, Academic Press, New York, NY, 1978.
Shinskey, Francis G., Process-Control Systems – Application / Design / Adjustment, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, 1979.
St. Clair, David W., Controller Tuning and Control Loop Performance, a primer, Straight-Line Control Company, Newark, DE, 1989.
Ziegler, J. G., and Nichols, N. B., Optimum Settings for Automatic Controllers, Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Volume 64, pages 759-768, Rochester, NY, November 1942.