Pipe and Pipe Fittings
Pipe is a hollow structure designed to provide an enclosed pathway for fluids to flow, usually manufactured from cast metal (although plastic is a common pipe material for many industrial applications). This section discusses some of the more common methods for joining pipes together (and joining pipe ends to equipment such as pressure instruments).
In the United States of America, most large industrial pipes are joined together by flanges. A pipe “flange” is a ring of metal, usually welded to the end of a pipe, with holes drilled in it parallel to the pipe centerline to accept several bolts:
Flange joints are made pressure-tight by inserting a donut-shaped gasket between the flange pairs prior to tightening the bolts. A common method of installing such a flange gasket is to first install only half of the bolts (in the holes lower than the centerline of the pipe), drop the gasket between the flanges, then insert the rest of the bolts:
A very important procedure to observe when tightening the bolts holding two flanges together is to evenly distribute the bolt pressure, so that no single region of the flange receives significantly more bolt pressure than any other region. In an ideal world, you would tighten all bolts to the same torque limit simultaneously. However, since this is impossible with just a single wrench, the best alternative is to tighten the bolts in alternating sequence, in stages of increasing torque. An illustrative torque sequence is shown in the following diagram (the numbers indicate the order in which the bolts should be tightened):
With one wrench, you would tighten each bolt to a preliminary torque in the sequence shown. Then, you would repeat the tightening sequence with additional torque for a couple more cycles until all bolts had been tightened to the recommended torque value. Note how the torque sequence alternates between four quadrants of the flange, ensuring the flanges are evenly compressed together as all bolts are gradually tightened. This technique of alternating quadrants around the circle is often referred to as cross-torquing.
Special wrenches called torque wrenches exist for the purpose of measuring applied torque during the tightening process. In critical, high-pressure applications, special tools exist to infer bolt pressure by measuring how far each bolt stretches as it is tightened.
Another important procedure to observe when working with flanged pipe connections is to loosen the bolts on the far side of the flange before loosening the bolts on the side of the flange nearest you. This is strictly a precautionary measure against the spraying of process fluid toward your face or body in the event of stored pressure inside of a flanged pipe. By reaching over the pipe to first loosen flange bolts on the far side, if any pressure happens to be inside the pipe, it should leak there first, venting the pressure in a direction away from you.
For smaller pipe sizes, threaded fittings are more commonly used to create connections between pipes and between pipes and equipment (including some instruments). A very common design of threaded pipe fitting is the tapered pipe thread design. The intent of a tapered thread is to allow the pipe and fitting to “wedge” together when engaged, creating a joint that is both mechanically rugged and leak-free.
When male and female tapered pie threads are first engaged, they form a loose junction:
After tightening, however, the tapered profile of the threads acts to wedge both male and female pieces tightly together as such:
Several different standards exist for tapered-thread pipe fittings. For each standard, the angle of the thread is fixed, as is the angle of taper. Thread pitch (the number of threads per unit length) varies with the diameter of the pipe fitting1.
In the United States, the most common tapered thread standard for general-purpose piping is the NPT, or National Pipe Taper design. NPT threads have an angle of 60o and a taper of 1o 47’ (1.7833o):
NPT pipe threads must have some form of sealant applied prior to assembly to ensure pressure-tight sealing between the threads. Teflon tape and various liquid pipe “dope” compounds work well for this purpose. Sealants are necessary with NPT threads for two reasons: to lubricate the male and female pieces (to guard against galling the metal surfaces), and also to fill the spiral gap formed between the root of the female thread and the crest of the male thread (and visa-versa). NPTF (National Pipe Thread) pipe threads are engineered with the same thread angle and pitch as NPT threads, but carefully machined to avoid the spiral leak path inherent to NPT threads.
This design – at least in theory – avoids the need to use sealant with NPTF threads to achieve a pressure-tight seal between male and female pieces, which is why NPTF threads are commonly referred to as dryseal. However, in practice it is still recommended that some form of sealant be used (or at the very least some form of thread lubricant) in order to achieve reliable sealing. ANPT (Aeronautical National Pipe Tapered) is identical to NPT, except with a greater level of precision and quality for its intended use in aerospace and military applications.
1For example, 1/8 inch NPT pipe fittings have a thread pitch of 27 threads per inch. 1/4 inch and 3/8 inch NPT fittings are 18 threads per inch, 1/2 inch and 3/4 inch NPT fittings are 14 threads per inch, and 1 inch through 2 inch NPT fittings are 11.5 threads per inch.
Another tapered-thread standard is the BSPT, or British Standard Pipe Tapered. BSPT threads have a narrower thread angle than NPT threads (55o instead of 60o) but the same taper of 1o 47’ (1.7833o):
An alternative to tapered threads in pipe joints is the use of parallel threads, similar to the threads of machine screws and bolts. Since parallel threads are incapable of forming a pressure-tight seal on their own, the sealing action of a parallel thread pipe fitting must be achieved some other way. This function is usually met with an O-ring or gasket.
In the United States, a common design of parallel-thread pipe fitting is the SAE straight thread, named after the Society of Automotive Engineers:
Sealing is accomplished as the O-ring is compressed against the shoulder of the female fitting. The threads serve only to provide force (not fluid sealing), much like the threads of a fastener.
Another parallel-thread pipe standard is the BSPP, or British Standard Pipe Parallel. Like the BSPT (tapered) standard, the thread angle of BSPP is 55o. Like the SAE parallel-thread standard, sealing is accomplished by means of an O-ring which compresses against the shoulder of the matching female fitting:
Food processing, pharmaceuticals manufacturing, and biological research processes are naturally sensitive to the presence of micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and algae. It is important in these processes to ensure the absence of harmful micro-organisms, for reasons of both human health and quality control. For this reason, the process piping and vessels in these industries is designed first and foremost to be thoroughly cleaned without the need for disassembly. Regular cleaning and sterilization cycles are planned and executed between production schedules (batches) to ensure no colonies of harmful micro-organisms can grow.
A common Clean-In-Place (CIP) protocol consists of flushing all process piping and vessels with alternating acid and caustic solutions, then washing with purified water. For increased sanitization, a Steam-In-Place (SIP) cycle may be incorporated as well, flushing all process pipes and vessels with hot steam to ensure the destruction of any micro-organisms.
An important design feature of any sanitary process is the elimination of any “dead ends” (often called dead legs in the industry), crevices, or voids where fluid may collect and stagnate. This includes any instruments contacting the process fluids. It would be unsafe, for example, to connect something as simple as a bourdon-tube pressure gauge to a pipe carrying biologically sensitive fluid(s), since the interior volume of the bourdon tube will act as a stagnant refuge for colonies of micro-organisms to grow:
Instead, any pressure gauge must use an isolating diaphragm, where the process fluid pressure is transferred to the gauge mechanism through a sterile “fill fluid” that never contacts the process fluid:
With the isolating diaphragm in place, there are no stagnant places for process fluid to collect and avoid flushing by CIP or SIP cycles.
Standard pipe fittings are problematic in sanitary systems, as tiny voids between the mating threads of male and female pipe fittings may provide refuge for micro-organisms. To avoid this problem, special sanitary fittings are used instead. These fittings consist of a matched pair of flanges, held together by an external clamp. An array of sanitary fittings on an instrument test bench appears in the following photograph:
The next photograph shows the installation of a pressure transmitter on an ultra-pure water line using one of these sanitary fittings. The external clamp holding the two flanges together is clearly visible in this photograph:
Sanitary pipe fittings are not limited to instrument connections, either. Here are two photographs of process equipment (a ball valve on the left, and a pump on the right) connected to process pipes using sanitary fittings: