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Control Valve Handbook - Table of Contents

Control valves are an increasingly vital component of modern manufacturing around the world. Properly selected and maintained control valves increase efficiency, safety, profitability, and ecology.

 The Control Valve Handbook has been a primary reference since its first printing in 1965. This fourth edition presents vital information on control valve performance and the latest technologies.

 The Control Valve Handbook is both a textbook and a reference on the strongest link in the control loop: the control valve and its accessories. This book includes extensive and proven knowledge from leading experts in the process control field including contributions from the ISA and the Crane Company.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction to Control Valves

What Is A Control Valve?

Process Control Terminology

Sliding-Stem Control Valve Terminology

Rotary-Shaft Control Valve Terminology

Control Valve Functions and Characteristics Terminology

Other Process Control Terminology

Chapter 2. Control Valve Performance

Process Variability

Dead Band

Actuator-Positioner Design

Valve Response Time

Valve Type and Characterization

Valve Sizing

Economic Results

Summary

Chapter 3. Valve and Actuator Types

Control Valves

Globe Valves

Single-Port Valve Bodies

Balanced-Plug Cage-Style Valve Bodies

High Capacity, Cage-Guided Valve Bodies

Port-Guided Single-Port Valve Bodies

Double-Ported Valve Bodies

Three-Way Valve Bodies

Rotary Valves

Butterfly Valve Bodies

V-Notch Ball Control Valve Bodies

Eccentric-Disk Control Valve Bodies

Eccentric-Plug Control Valve Bodies

Control Valve End Connections

Screwed Pipe Threads

Bolted Gasketed Flanges

Welding End Connections

Valve Body Bonnets

Extension Bonnets

Bellows Seal Bonnets

Control Valve Packing

PTFE V-Ring

Laminated and Filament Graphite

USA Regulatory Requirements for Fugitive Emissions

Single PTFE V-Ring Packing

ENVIRO-SEAL® PTFE Packing

ENVIRO-SEAL® Duplex Packing

KALREZ® Packing

ENVIRO−SEAL® Graphite ULF

HIGH-SEAL® Graphite ULF

ENVIRO-SEAL® Graphite for Rotary Valves

Graphite Ribbon for Rotary Valves

Characterization of Cage-Guided Valve Bodies

Characterized Valve Plugs

Valve Plug Guiding

Restricted-Capacity Control Valve Trim

Actuators

Diaphragm Actuators

Piston Actuators

Electrohydraulic Actuators

Manual Actuators

Rack and Pinion Actuators

Electric Actuators

Chapter 4. Control Valve Accessories

Positioners

Other Control Valve Accessories

Limit Switches

Solenoid Valve Manifold

Supply Pressure Regulator

Pneumatic Lock-Up Systems

Fail-Safe Systems for Piston Actuators

Electro-Pneumatic Transducers

Electro-Pneumatic Valve Positioners

Diagnostics

Chapter 5. Control Valve Selection

Valve Body Materials

Designations for the High Nickel Alloys

Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Standard Class

Cast Carbon Steel (ASTM A216 Grade WCC)

Cast Chromium-Molybdenum Steel (ASTM A217 Grade WC9)

Cast Chromium-Molybdenum Steel (ASTM A217 Grade C5)

Cast Type 304 Stainless Steel (ASTM A351 Grade CF3)

Cast Type 316 Stainless Steel (ASTM A351 Grades CF8M and CG8M)

Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM A216 Cast Iron Valves

Pressure-Temperature Ratings for ASTM B61 and B62 Cast Bronze Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe-Style Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Buttweld-End Globe-Style Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Socket Weld-End Globe-Style Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Screwed-End Globe-Style Control Valves

Face-to-Centerline Dimensions for Raised Face Globe-Style Angle Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Separable Flanged Globe-Style Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flangeless, Partial-Ball Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Single Flange (Lug-Type) and Flangeless (Wafer-Type) Butterfly Control Valves

Face-to-Face Dimensions for High Pressure Butterfly Valves with Offset Design

Wear & Galling Resistance Chart Of Material Combinations

Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications

Class VI Maximum Seat Leakage Allowable

Typical Valve Trim Material Temperature Limits

Service Temperature Limitations for Elastomers

Ambient Temperature Corrosion Information

Elastomer Information

Fluid Compatibility

Control Valve Flow Characteristics

Flow Characteristics

Selection of Flow Characteristic

Valve Sizing

Sizing Valves for Liquids

Abbreviations and Terminology

Equation Constants

Determining Fp, the Piping Geometry Factor

Determining qmax (the Maximum Flow Rate) or DPmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop)

Determining qmax (the Maximum Flow Rate)

Determining DPmax (the Allowable Sizing Pressure Drop)

Liquid Sizing Sample Problem

Sizing Valves for Compressible Fluids

Determining xTP, the Pressure Drop Ratio Factor

Compressible Fluid Sizing Sample Problem No. 1

Compressible Fluid Sizing Sample Problem No. 2

Representative Sizing Coefficients for Single-Ported

Globe-Style Valve Bodies

Representative Sizing Coefficients for Rotary-Shaft Valves

Actuator Sizing

Globe Valves

A. Unbalance Force

Typical Unbalance Areas of Control Valves

B. Force to Provide Seat Load

C. Packing Friction

Typical Packing Friction Values

D. Additional Forces

Actuator Force Calculations

Rotary Actuator Sizing

Torque Equations

Breakout Torque

Dynamic Torque

Typical Rotary Shaft Valve Torque Factors

V-Notch Ball Valve with Composition Seal

High Performance Butterfly Valve with Composition Seal

Maximum Rotation

Non-Destructive Test Procedures

Magnetic Particle (Surface) Examination

Liquid Penetrant (Surface) Examination

Radiographic (Volumetric) Examination

Ultrasonic (Volumetric) Examination

Cavitation and Flashing

Choked Flow Causes Flashing and Cavitation

Valve Selection for Flashing Service

Valve Selection for Cavitation Service

Noise Prediction

Aerodynamic

Hydrodynamic

Noise Control

Noise Summary

Packing Selection

Packing Selection Guidelines for Sliding−Stem Valves

Packing Selection Guidelines for Rotary Valves

Chapter 6. Special Control Valves

High Capacity Control Valves

Low Flow Control Valves

High-Temperature Control Valves

Cryogenic Service Valves

Customized Characteristics and Noise Abatement Trims

Control Valves for Nuclear Service in the USA

Valves Subject to Sulfide Stress Cracking

Pre-2003 Revisions of MR0175

NACE MR0175/ISO 15156

NACE MR0103

Chapter 7. Steam Conditioning Valves

Understanding Desuperheating

Technical Aspects of Desuperheating

Typical Desuperheater Designs

Fixed Geometry Nozzle Design

Variable Geometry Nozzle Design

Self-Contained Design

Steam Atomized Design

Geometry-Assisted Wafer Design

Understanding Steam Conditioning Valves

Steam Conditioning Valves

Steam Cooler

Steam Sparger

Understanding Turbine Bypass Systems

Turbine Bypass System Components

Turbine Bypass Valves

Turbine Bypass Water Control Valves

Electro-Hydraulic System

Chapter 8. Installation and Maintenance

Proper Storage and Protection

Proper Installation Techniques

Read the Instruction Manual

Be Sure the Pipeline Is Clean

Inspect the Control Valve

Use Good Piping Practices

Control Valve Maintenance

Reactive Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance

Predictive Maintenance

Using Control Valve Diagnostics

Instrument Air Leakage

Supply Pressure

Travel Deviation and Relay Adjustment

Instrument Air Quality

In-Service Friction and Friction Trending

Other Examples

Continued Diagnostics Development

Actuator Diaphragm

Stem Packing

Seat Rings

Grinding Metal Seats

Replacing Seat Rings

Bench Set

Chapter 9. Standards and Approvals

Control Valve Standards

American Petroleum Institute (API)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

European Industrial Valve Standards

European Material Standards

European Flange Standards

Fluid Controls Institute (FCI)

Instrument Society of America (ISA)

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

International Standards Organization (ISO)

Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)

NACE International

Product Approvals for Hazardous (Classified) Locations

References . . . . . . 178

Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standards

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

(CENELEC) Standards

Instrument Society of America (ISA) Standards

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards

National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association

(NEMA) Standards

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standards

North American Approvals

Approval Agencies

Types of Protection

Nomenclature

Hazardous Location Classification

Temperature Code

NEMA Enclosure Rating

General Locations

Hazardous (Classified) Locations

CSA Enclosure Ratings

Intrinsically Safe Apparatus

Entity Concept

CSA System Parameter Concept

Loop Schematic (Control Drawing)

Comparison of Protection Techniques

Explosion-proof Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique

Installation Requirements

Intrinsically Safe Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique   

Dust Ignition−proof Technique

Non-Incendive Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique

European and Asia/Pacific Approvals

Approval Agencies

CENELEC Approvals

Types of Protection

Flameproof

Increased Safety

Intrinsically Safe

Non-Incendive

Nomenclature

Hazardous Location Classification

Group

Zone

Temperature Code

IEC Enclosure Rating

NEMA and IEC Enclosure Rating Comparison

Comparison of Protection Techniques

Flameproof Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique

Increased Safety Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique

Intrinsically Safe Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique

Type n Technique

Advantages of this Technique

Disadvantages of this Technique

Chapter 10. Engineering Data

Standard Specifications For Valve Materials

Valve Materials Properties for Pressure−Containing Components

Physical Constants of Hydrocarbons

Specific Heat Ratio (K)

Physical Constants of Various Fluids

Refrigerant 717 (Ammonia)

Properties of Water

Properties of Saturated Steam

Properties of Superheated Steam

Velocity of Liquids in Pipe

Flow of Water Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Flow of Air Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe

Calculations for Pipe Other than Schedule 40

Chapter 11. Pipe Data

Pipe Engagement

Carbon and Alloy Steel − Stainless Steel

American Pipe Flange Dimensions − Diameter of Bolt Circle-Inches

American Pipe Flange Dimensions − Number of Stud Bolts and Diameter in Inches

American Pipe Flange Dimensions − Flange Diameter−Inches

American Pipe Flange Dimensions − Flange Thickness for Flange Fittings

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 16

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 25

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 40

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 63

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 100

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 160

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 250

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 320

Cast Steel Flange Standard for PN 400

Chapter 12. Conversions and Equivalents

Length Equivalents

Whole Inch−Millimeter Equivalents

Fractional Inches to Millimeters

Additional Fractional/Decimal Inch−Millimeter Equivalents

Area Equivalents

Volume Equivalents

Volume Rate Equivalents

Mass Conversion—Pounds to Kilograms

Pressure Equivalents

Pressure Conversion—Pounds per Square Inch to Bar

Temperature Conversion Formulas

Temperature Conversions

A.P.I. and Baumé Gravity Tables and Weight Factors

Equivalent Volume and Weight Flow Rates of Compressible Fluids

Viscosity Conversion Nomograph

Other Useful Conversions

Metric Prefixes and Symbols

Promotions

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