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Glossary of terms used on this site

There are 823 entries in this glossary.
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Term Definition

A part of the valve assembly used to seal against leakage around the valve disk or stem.

Packing Box (Assembly)

(Sliding-Stem Control Valve Terminology) The part of the bonnet assembly used to seal against leakage around the closure member stem. Included in the complete packing box assembly are various combinations of some or all of the following component parts: packing, packing follower, packing nut, lantern ring, packing spring, packing flange, packing flange studs or bolts, packing flange nuts, packing ring, packing wiper ring, felt wiper ring, belleville springs, anti-extrusion ring.


A high-speed, high-density distributed I/O system that accommodates both digital and analog I/O modules. Pamux supports up to 32 stations containing up to 512 I/O points. Contact OPTO22 for more information.


An optical illusion which occurs in analog meters and causes reading errors. It occurs when the viewing eye is not in the same plane, perpendicular to the meter face, as the indicating needle.

Parallel Transmission

Sending all data bits simultaneously. Commonly used for communications between computers and printer devices.


A technique for testing transmitting data. Typically, a binary digit is added to the data to make the sum of all the digits of the binary data either always even (even parity) or always odd (odd parity).

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

A high-performance expansion bus architecture originally developed by Intel to replace ISA and EISA. It is achieving widespread acceptance as a standard for PCs and workstations; it offers a theoretical maximum transfer rate of 132 Mbytes/s.

PCM (Pulse Coded Modulation)

A method of encoding information in a signal by varying the amplitude of pulses. The most common method of encoding an analog signal into a digital bit stream, usually 16 bits per sample.

Peltier Effect

When a current flows through a thermocouple junction, heat will either be absorbed or evolved depending on the direction of current flow. This effect is independent of joule I2 R heating.

Perfectly Balanced Rotor

A rotor is perfectly balanced when its mass distribution is such that it transmits no vibratory force or motion to its bearings as a result of centrifugal forces.


A device that is external to the CPU and main memory, i.e., printer, modem or terminal, but is connected by the appropriate electrical connections.

pH Junctions

The Junction of a reference electrode or combination electrode is a permeable membrane through which the fill solution escapes (called the liquid junction).

pH(S) (Standard pH Scale)

The conventional standard pH scale established on the basis that an individual ionic activity coefficient can be calculated from the Debye-H¸ckel law for primary buffers.


A time based relationship between a periodic function and a reference. In electricity, it is expressed in angular degrees to describe the voltage or current relationship of two alternating waveforms.

Phase Difference

The time expressed in degrees between the same reference point on two periodic waveforms.

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