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Glossary of terms used on this site

There are 823 entries in this glossary.
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Term Definition

To reflect received data to the sender. For example, keys depressed on a keyboard are usually echoed as characters displayed on the screen.

ECP (Extended Capabilities Port)

An asynchronous, 8-bit-wide parallel channel defined by IEEE 1284-1944 that provides PC-to-peripheral and peripheral-to-PC data transfers.

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmab

ROM that can be erased with an electrical signal and reprogrammed.

Effective Area

(Control Valve Functions and Characteristics Terminology) In a diaphragm actuator, the effective area is that part of the diaphragm area that is effective in producing a stem force. The effective area of a diaphragm might change as it is stroked, usually being a maximum at the start and a minimum at the end of the travel range. Molded diaphragms have less change in effective area than flat sheet diaphragms; thus, molded diaphragms are recommended.

Electrical Interference

Electrical noise induced upon the signal wires that obscures the wanted information signal.

Electro Motive Force (EMF)

An electrical potential difference which produces or tends to produce an electric current.


See Isopotential point.

Electrode Potential (E)

The difference in potential established between an electrode and a solution when the electrode is immersed in the solution.


Any substance which, when in solution will conduct an electric current. Acids, bases, and salts are common electrolytes.

Electromotive Force (emf)

The potential difference between the two electrodes in a cell. The cell emf is the cell voltage measured when no current is flowing through the cell. It can be measured by means of a pH meter with high input impedance.

Electronic Industries Association (EIA)

A standards organization specializing in the electrical and functional characteristics of interface equipment.


A circuit in a watt, VAR or PF meter that accepts one voltage and one current input.

Embedded System

A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as is the case of an anti-lock braking system in a car. Contrast with general-purpose computer.


Electromotive force. A rise in (electrical) potential energy. The principal unit is the volt.


Electromagnetic interference.

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